Are you looking for a highly stable antibody that can bind to hard to reach active sites?

At Abcore we provide research scientists and companies involved with the antibody reagents market Single Domain Antibodies faster and more reliably than any other company.
What are the benefits of 
Abcore's Single Domain Antibodies?

Heat Stable

Single Domain Antibodies are heat stable up to approximately seventy degrees centigrade.

pH Stable

Single Domain Antibodies are stable over a much larger pH range than traditional antibodies.

Small Size

Compared to traditional antibodies which are approximately 150 kDa in size, they are only 15 kDa.

Single Domain Antibodies can easily be converted into different formats such as Fc-fusion proteins and heterodimers. 

Easily Linked

Less Immunotoxicity

Single Domain Antibodies are less likely to be immunotoxic.

Better Penetration

Single Domain Antibodies can penetrate into tissue much more rapidly than traditional antibodies.

Use in Crystallization

Better Clearance

Single Domain Antibodies are able to pass the renal filter resulting in their rapid blood clearance.

Better Delivery

Single Domain Antibodies are more suitable for oral delivery and use in diagnostic devices.

Use as Intrabodies

Single Domain Antibodies can be used as intrabodies to target intracellular proteins.

Our Production Process

First we start by immunizing llamas with the immunogen.

The llamas then go through a 90 day schedule during which they are boosted and bled to determine their specific anti-sera titer.

Once the anti-sera titre up, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, also called PBMCs, are isolated and total RNA is isolated from them, and cDNA is prepared.

The VHH genes are then amplified from cDNA using proprietary PCR primers that cover the genetic diversity in this complex region.

Next, the PCR product is cloned into a phagemid vector creating the VHH antibody library.

After that the library is screened through multiple rounds of affinity panning, and positive clones are identified via ELISA, and then sequenced.

Finally, these clones are used to produce expressed, purified, llama monoclonal Single Domain Antibodies.

Production Options

At Abcore we give you the unique choice of selecting one of 6 single-domain antibody production options

Option 1

Fresh Llama Blood

Llama blood delivered in 2-4 hours after collection.

Linda Poplin

Jennifer Johnson

David Barraclough

Farm Technician


Client Care

Linda Poplin, Farm Tech at Abcore LLC, has been involved in the care of research animals for over 20 years and oversees the animal care program. She has extensive experience working in the San Diego biotech hub, is an expert in animal health and procedures, and was instrumental in developing proprietary procedures at Abcore. She has a genuine interest in the total care of all animals.  We are lucky to have her be a part of the Abcore team. 

Jennifer Johnson, Vice President of Operations at Abcore LLC, has 18 years of laboratory experience offering a wide variety of lab related expertise. Her specialties include polyclonal antibody production in a variety of species, ascites production, antibody purification, monoclonal antibody production / development, and project management. She has been involved in all levels of antibody production and understands the detailed processes.

David Barraclough, Client Care at Abcore LLC, has a degree in Molecular Biology from UC San Diego, where he worked as a research associate for 7 years. While working at the UC San Diego Medical School for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute he was a co-author on publications and managed the DNA sequencing facility and microscopy core facility. David also founded RenderGen, a 3D computer animation company which produced “mechanism of action” movies for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.

Why choose Abcore?
Largest Llama Immunization Facility
We provide you access to one of the largest llama immunization facilities in the nation. Scientists and staff at Abcore are highly knowledgeable about the immunization of a variety of animals, and their experiences are indispensable at generating high quality single domain antibodies since high antibody titer in the animal blood is the first step to guarantee the success of single domain antibody isolation.
Freshest Cells, Best Quality RNA
We use the freshest cells and best quality RNA to make your library. Since the single domain antibody library is constructed with mRNA that encodes the antibody genes, it is critical to capture the expression profile of the antibody producing B cells. It is also well known that expression profile and mRNA composition change rapidly once the cells are taken out of their native environment. Therefore, we make every effort to preserve the health of your cells before lysing them for RNA isolation. In addition to this all animal bleeds are processed in the same day (usually within 2-4 hours) to purify the peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC).
Proprietary PCR Primers
Our proprietary PCR primers ensure the maximum coverage of VHH repertoires. We have performed extensive bioinformatics research on VHH genes and designed novel primers for RT-PCR to amplify VHH cDNA. VHH libraries constructed with these primers have much higher diversity and larger coverage of the VHH repertoires. In fact, we have identified several pico-molar affinity VHH binders that have unique sequences and would have been missed if published primers were used.
Best Quality RNA To Make Your cDNA
We use the best quality RNA to make your cDNA. All RNAs are double-purified with phenol-chloroform extraction and spin columns. RNA qualities are examined by electrophoresis before being used to make cDNA.
Large Numbers Of Independent Clones
We deliver your library with a large numbers of independent clones. Our proprietary PBMC isolation and library construction protocol routinely yields >1x108 PBMC cells from each production bleed.
We Understand Your Needs
Our principal scientist will discuss your project directly and custom design it. We offer flexible service schedules to fit your lab setup and budget.

© 2022 Abcore, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Meet Our Managment Team

PBMC Package

PBMCs delivered in 3-4 days.

Option 2


RNA or cDNA delivered in 1-2 weeks.

Option 3

Positive Clones

The library is screened and the positive clones are delivered in 45-60 days.

Option 5

Large Scale Production of Clones

A large scale production of the positive clones is delivered in 90 days. 

Option 6

Single Domain Antibody Library

Complete Single Domain Antibody library delivered in 30 days.

Option 4

Single Domain Antibodies can be used as crystallization chaperones in the structure determination of challenging target proteins. 

Types of immunizations successfully completed in llamas:

 peptide • protein • electroporation • small molecules • cell-surface proteins • plasmids • cell based immunizations  small haptens

Abcore has the following licenses: USDA #93-R-0541 • USDA #93-B-0245 • NIH/OLAW #A4713-01



CALL US 9am-5pm Mon-Fri PST: